Hsslive.net Plus one chemistry Notes of Chapter 1- Topic “Properties of Matter and their Measurements” with Pdf Download

Hsslive.net provided Plus One Chemistry notes for students in their higher secondary years in two languages English Medium & Malayalam Medium. Topics- “Properties of Matter and their Measurements” that are usually covered in the first year of chemistry at the higher secondary level. valuable for both Kerala Syllabus and CBSE students with knowledge cultivated over two decades of teaching experience.

Properties of Matter and their Measurements

Matter is anything that has mass and occupies space. Matter can exist in different states, such as solid, liquid, or gas, depending on the arrangement and movement of its particles. Matter can also be classified into pure substances and mixtures, based on its composition. Pure substances are those that have a fixed composition and properties, such as elements and compounds. Mixtures are those that contain two or more substances that can vary in their proportions and properties, such as solutions, suspensions, and colloids.

To study matter, we need to measure its physical and chemical properties. Physical properties are those that can be observed or measured without changing the identity or composition of the substance. Chemical properties are those that describe how a substance reacts with other substances or changes into new substances. Some examples of physical properties are mass, volume, density, colour, melting point, boiling point, etc. Some examples of chemical properties are acidity, basicity, flammability, reactivity, etc.

To measure the physical properties of matter, we need to use appropriate units and instruments. The International System of Units (SI) is a standard system of measurement that is widely used in science and engineering. It consists of seven base units and several derived units. The base units are:

  • Metre (m) for length
  • Kilogram (kg) for mass
  • Second (s) for time
  • Ampere (A) for electric current
  • Kelvin (K) for temperature
  • Mole (mol) for amount of substance
  • Candela (cd) for luminous intensity

The derived units are obtained by combining the base units with appropriate prefixes and exponents. For example, the unit of force is newton (N), which is defined as kg m s-2. Some common prefixes are:

  • Kilo (k) for 103
  • Mega (M) for 106
  • Giga (G) for 109
  • Milli (m) for 10-3
  • Micro (µ) for 10-6
  • Nano (n) for 10-9

Some common instruments used to measure the physical properties of matter are:

  • Balance for mass
  • Ruler for length
  • Stopwatch for time
  • Thermometer for temperature
  • Voltmeter for electric potential
  • Ammeter for electric current
  • Graduated cylinder for volume

To measure the chemical properties of matter, we need to perform chemical reactions and observe the changes in the substances involved. Some common methods used to measure the chemical properties of matter are:

  • pH meter or indicator paper for acidity or basicity
  • Flame test or spectroscope for metal ions
  • Litmus paper or universal indicator for acid-base reactions
  • Precipitation test or solubility rules for ionic compounds
  • Oxidation-reduction test or redox indicators for oxidation states

 

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